Water in nature
Founder of peace and national unity - Leader of the nation President of the Republic of Tajikistan Emomali Rahmon in his Message (December 22, 2016) expressed admiration that The United Nations has put forward the fourth proposal of our country to the International decade "water for sustainable development". supported by 177 countries, approved and adopted for 2018-2028. It is a great honor for the Tajik people and all of Tajikistan.
Thus, on March 22, 2018, on the International Day of Water Resources, the fourth global water initiative, the “International Decade for Action“ Water for Sustainable Development, 2018–2028, ”with the participation of the head of state in the UN General Assembly, officially began.
Among the huge number of chemical compounds found on OUR PLANET, a special place is occupied by water. Water can be in different States: solid, liquid and gaseous. In winter, when the temperature is below 0 °C, most often on the street we see frozen water-ice. Water flows from the tap in a liquid state, and the stream of steam gushing from the boiling kettle is a gaseous state of water. By the way, in clouds water is very often in three States at once – and different forms of clouds are connected with it!
The science that studies water is called hydrology . It is believed that the first hydrological studies were carried out 5 thousand years ago by the ancient Egyptians on the Nile river: they tracked the height of floods and made marks on the walls of buildings, rocks or coastal stairs.
If on our planet there was no water, on it there would be no life in its modern understanding: many species of plants and animals consist partially of water, and the percentage of its contents in their bodies is quite large.
For example, we with you (as and all people) on 60% consist from water. This figure depends on age: the body of newborns consists of water by 86 %, and the elderly-only 50%. Therefore, drinking water is extremely important for people-it is known that without food a person can live for about a month, and without water only from 3 to 10 days.
All water on Earth that is used or can be used by humans is water resources. These include all the waters of rivers, lakes, canals, reservoirs, seas and oceans, groundwater, soil moisture, water (ice) mountain and polar glaciers, and even water vapor atmosphere. More than 97% of all water on the planet is in the oceans and seas. It is known that in the ocean water is salty, and it is not suitable for drinking. Rivers, lakes, streams and other surface sources of fresh water as well as groundwater contain less than 1% of the total volume of water on the planet! It would seem that this is quite a bit, but there is a more extensive supply of fresh water-it's glaciers and ice caps of Antarctica and Greenland. They account for 2 % of all water on earth-almost 8 times more than in rivers and lakes combined!
Thus, one of the main tasks of ecology can be considered the preservation of fresh drinking water-because without it people can not exist! The problem of drinking water scarcity is exacerbated by global climate change, as well as the growing need for food and hygiene among The world's growing population. Since the beginning of the twentieth century, the world's population has grown from 1.6 to 7.2 billion people-4.5 times! In most countries, water use has increased in recent decades due to population growth, lifestyle changes and the development of agricultural production. About 70% of all fresh water used by humans is used for irrigation of fields. According to UN experts, by 2050 almost 90% of the world's fresh water resources will be needed for food production. UN experts also point out that drinking water is unevenly distributed across the continents: Asia is home to 60% of the world's population, but it has access to only 1/3 of water resources. According to the world health organization, almost 800 million people worldwide (40% of them live in Africa) do not have access to clean drinking water. In 2015, the UN adopted the "sustainable development Goals", including the goal to ensure universal access to clean water and sanitation by 2030.